瑾心是『自閉症覺醒網站』的創辨人和主編。她不僅是一位自閉兒的母親,並擁有麻州大學挪威爾分校( U of Massachusetts at Lowell)的自閉症行為干預的碩士証書。自2007年,她所建立的『自閉症覺醒網站』,詳細刊載美國最新的自閉症醫學研究報告、功能行為分析(FBA)、正統的 Home-Based 挪瑪斯(Lovvas)應用行為干預教學(DTT)前因控制介入 (Antecedent Control Intervention) 至實際的行為支援 (PBS)、言教學 (Verbal Behavior)和不同華人家庭的自閉症心路歷程。

 

她的教導著重活用應用行為分析(ABA) 的科學,DTT 的的離析原則和 Differential Reinforcements、與言語行為(VB) 運用的整合,將自閉症教育生活化;並提供評估的方法,按照孩子不同的成長階段而設計不同的教學內容、鼓勵增強孩子的獨立學習行為,和如何觀察自閉兒的行為動機 (FBA),以提供符合社交期待的替代行為 (PBS),繼而減弱負面的問題行為為要改善自閉兒的社會生存和獨立的功能。

 

『自閉症覺醒網站』,最重要的是要帶出「覺醒」的呼召。藉著開設社區的專題講座,幫助父母瞭解到自閉症不是咒詛,並協助父母同心的面對自閉症,同時輔導夫妻保守在自閉症挑戰中的神聖婚約;並在網上播出視訊的影音教導,喚醒人們重新認識無條件的愛。

∼Acts 3:16

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來自美國自閉兒父母的一問:什麼是 Transition?

瑾心
9/14/2009


idea2004 - Share on Ovi

http://idea.ed.gov/

在美國,自閉兒的父母常聽到這個字〝 transition〞。

Transition, 按表面的字義〝過渡〞是什麼?Transition是幫助有特殊需要的孩子,從幼兒期一直過渡銜接到成人期的過程。

開始發生在孩子3歲時,從區域中心(Regional center)的資源服務到學區的特殊教育,再來就是在14 歲及 22歲之間,必須對有特殊需要的青少年,加強學術以外的獨立生活訓練。

所有的兒童,無論是健全或有弱能,在美國憲法下一樣享有權利、 需求、才藝被肯定和追求夢想。對具有特殊需要挑戰的學生,能否順利地過渡到成人期的獨立性,關鍵在於要能認識到他們淺在的獨特天賦和興趣。在轉換過程中,學生有權詢見所有的政府支援與服務,為要盡可能地讓有特殊需要的孩子,能全面性的獨立生活。

根據【殘疾人士教育法 (IDEA) 】和【復健法(the Rehabilitation Act) 】說明,有特殊需要的學齡孩子在他們的過渡年齡( 14-22)間有權要求學校和區域中心(Regional Center)實質的輔助。 IDEA 所涵蓋的學生,要求孩子要從14歲時開始規劃獨立性的過渡計劃,至少要在學校的【個人教育計畫 (IEP) 】中明文答應在孩子的高中教育裡,提供孩子在轉接獨立生活的必需支援和服務。在16歲前,【殘疾人士教育法 (IDEA) 】保障特殊需要的學生有法律上的權利要求學校和區域中心(Regional Center), 提供一個【轉型的服務計畫 (TIEP)】,以確保孩子所有的需要,能成功地進入成年後的獨立性。

但是,孩子們卻常得不到確實的服務和權益。 這可能是因為父母對法律、 法規不充分地瞭解;也許是因為提供服務的機構短缺經費或人力時間;或者是因為缺乏一個有活力和肯做事的過渡時期計劃的社工負責人;也或者是因為負責領導孩子【轉型的服務計畫 (TIEP)】的團隊,缺乏有心和有法律知識的堅定領導者。

有特殊需要的學生和他/她的【轉型的服務計畫 (TIEP)】團隊,必須要按著學生的需要和權益,全面設計並選擇可滿足孩子,進入成人生活的特殊需要服務目標。

一些應被父母考慮的服務和目標:

<服務>

職業改善重定服務〔vocational rehabilitation〕

職業諮詢服務〔vocational counseling〕

職業培訓〔vocational training〕

<目標>

大學(college)

職業,行業或專業〔career, trade or profession〕

整合就業 (與非殘障人士的同事) 〔integrated employment (alongside non-disabled colleagues) 】

支援就業〔supported employment〕

自己創業〔self employment〕

繼續成人教育〔continuing and adult education〕

成人服務〔adult services〕

輔助技術〔assistive technology〕

獨立生活〔independent living〕

社區參與 (例如出席教堂,搭乘公眾的運輸交通工具,以及使用圖書館。) 〔community participation (experiences such as attending church, taking public transportation, using the library) 〕。

英文的法令詳細內容如下:

The reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) defines transition services as a coordinated set of activities for a child with a disability that:

Is designed to be within a results-oriented process, that is focused on improving the academic and functional achievement of the child with a disability to facilitate the child’s movement from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education; vocational education; integrated employment (including supported employment); continuing and adult education; adult services; independent living or community participation; and [602(34)(A)]

Is based on the individual child’s needs, taking into account the child’s strengths, preferences and interests. [602(34)(B)] Transition is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the transition plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare them for life after high school, transition can start when a child enters preschool. The transition planning process occurs over a period of several years and involves planning, goal setting, instruction, services, and activities designed to make that move successful.

What Is Transition Planning? Transition planning is a process that focuses on the plans and dreams that a student has for the future. The purpose of transition planning is to provide the student with the services and supports he or she needs to make a successful move into adult life. Transition planning should take place for any student with disabilities who has an Individual Educational Plan (IEP). Transition planning should involve the student, the family, school staff, agency staff, and others identified by the Transition IEP team. Transition IEP (TIEP) Process Parents and Guardians will be asked to help write a Transition IEP (TIEP) when a student is 14 years old, and at least once every 12 months after that. The process of developing a Transition IEP is different than the process of developing a regular IEP. The contents of the TIEP are somewhat different. In addition to the information required for all IEP meeting notices, the written notice for a TIEP meeting must state:

That the purpose of the meeting is to discuss courses of study (diploma options), transition services needs or needed transition services

That the student has been invited

Which other agencies have been invited to the meeting (for students age 14 older). The student’s Desired Post-School Outcome – the student’s dream for life after

Graduation Transition Services Options Transition services are a coordinated set of services that help students prepare for post-school activities such as:

Continuing and Adult Education - college, university, pursuit of personal interests, job skill training and placement.

Vocational Training - Trade or Technical School, On-the-Job Training Programs, Apprenticeships, Job Shadowing, Job Sampling.

Integrated Employment – including supported employment.

Adult Services (from various agencies) - Supervised settings for work and learning for adults.

Independent Living – includes training in handling money, travel training, shopping for food and other necessities, and managing free time.

Community Participation - religious activities, volunteering, athletics/recreation.

Services for the 18 to 22 Year Old Population The district will provide services to students with disabilities who have not graduated with a standard diploma or G.E.D. until the end of the school year in which the student turns 22. Services for the 18-22 year old population may be offered in a variety of settings, including a high school campus or technical center. Services for the 18-22 year old population may include: • Career/workforce education

Community-based employment training (including supported competitive employment)

Independent living skills training

Vocational/Technical School education Successful Transition is Comprehensive Transition planning for students with disabilities spans the school, work and community settings. For this reason a team effort involving all stakeholders is essential to the quality and success of this activity for our students.

The success of transition planning depends on each member of the team helping the student reach his or her dreams and goals for the future. Team members include but are not limited to: Parents/Guardians, teachers, counselors, employers, and community agencies. Their involvement determines how successful the student’s transition will be.

It is also important that the student participate as much as possible in the transition planning process, especially in deciding what he or she would like to do after leaving school.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) emphasizes the importance of involving students in meaningful ways in this process.


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