B6 plus magnesium
• 從西元1965年到2005年, 投入40年對高單位的B6加上鎂在自閉症兒童和成人的幫助上,証實效果顯著; 根據 Edelson (2002)的研究報告發現:
2) 明顯增加功能化的行為, 有注意力, 能模仿學習, 語言能力增加,與人相處有眼光接觸.
• 根據rAdams (2007)的報告闡明，B6加鎂的治療是終身性 (lifelong)，若改進飲食控制 (diet control)和醫治食道也許能減少對B6的需要.
• 根據美國食品標準代辦處(FDA)的建議, 採取過很多的維生素B6 (每天超過200毫克)，或者長期服用B6, 可能導致在胳膊和腿的周邊神經失去知覺; 通常這些症狀是能控制的, 一旦您停止採取B6補充，通常症狀會中止; 對大量 B6服用者, 有時也需等候幾個月後, 神經知覺才能恢復.
• 根據美國日需營養補充辦公室(Office of Dietary Supplements,2006)的資料顯示, 服用過量維生素B6的`會導致鎂缺乏,所以鎂要與 B6 一起服用以避免這個問題.
• 鎂缺乏的癥狀有遺尿(尿床)，脾氣易怒火爆, 或者對環境的音量有敏感性; 但過量的鎂會導致腹瀉.
• Dr. Bernard Rimland 研讀所有 B6 的研究, 他推薦按照體重, 每磅約需維生素B6 8mg,再配上半量 B6的鎂(4mg/pound)劑量; 然而，他強調每個自閉症的 B6 的服用量, 還是要按個人實際需要調整增加或減少.
• 維生素B6的藥量在研究中, 從0.6 mg/每公斤的體重/每天(對40磅孩子, 大約10.8 mg /day) 變化到30 mg/每公斤的體重/每天(對40磅孩子,大約545 mg /day)
• 鎂可以每天被服用，但在開始補充之前, 請一定要與您孩子的小兒科醫生商議, 因為目前沒有確切的適當的藥量限制, 一般研究報告使用了藥量在 6-15 mg/每公斤體重/每天的範圍內, (40磅的孩子, 大約每天108-270毫克)
• 根據AutismWeb.com 2007的論壇資料, 鎂能減少夜間的肌肉抽筋, 使自閉症者不會因疼痛在夜晚驚醒尖叫; 鎂也能減少靜態的痙攣現象, 使自閉症者能有更好的注意集中力.
• SuperNuThera (SNT) 是一個含有大量的 B6 維他命與鎂 (magnesium) 的綜合維他命,由 Dr. Bernard Rimland所研究發明的 (http://www.kirkmanlabs.com/).
• SuperNuThera (SNT) 有副作用包括: 拉肚子、皮膚出疹和異常好動, 但這些副作用是暫時的狀況並不會持久.
• 若自閉兒體內缺鋅 (zinc), 服用 SNT時, 一定要通知醫生調整配合鋅吸收的銅含量, 但為了謹慎起見, 要讓醫生知道 SNT 的各種礦物質含量.
資料來源: Autism Research Institute
1965 – 2005
Twenty-one of twenty-two studies yielded positive results, including 13 double-blind placebo-controlled trials; even minor adverse effects rarely were seen AUTHOR/YEAR SUBJECT/DOSAGE DESIGN/OUTCOME 1. Heeley & Roberts (1965) 16 autistic children 30 mg, B6 one time (one child continued) Tryptophan load test. 11 of 16 Children normalized urine. (Child who continued showed "remarkable" progress) 2. Bonisch (1968) 16 autistic children 100 mg - 600 mg B6 (mostly 300-400 mg) Open trial 12 of 16 improved, 3 spoke for the first time 3. Rimland (1973) 190 autistic children 4 megavitamins; 150 mg to 450 mg B6 Compared B6 effect in computer- selected subgroups; computer "blind" to treatment effects. 45% "definite improvement" (p<.02) 4. Rimland, Callaway, Dreyfus (1978) 16 autistic children 75 mg to 3,000 mg B6 (mostly 300-500 mg) Double-blind placebo crossover, 11 of 15 better on B6 (p<.05) 5. Gualtieri et al. (1981) 15 autistic children 300 mg to 900 mg B6 plus other vitamins & minerals Open trial 12 weeks, then No-treatment period. 6 Children showed "substantial" improvement. Basal serum Prolactin levels (PRL) were lower in responders. (p<.05) 6. Ellman (1981) 16 autistic adults and adolescents. 1 gram/day B6 500 mg/day magnesium Double-blind placebo Crossover. Four showed Global improvement, five showed partial improvement. 7. Barthelemy et al. (1981) 52 autistic children 11 normal controls 30 mg/kg/day B6 (up to 1 gram) 10-15 mg/kg/day magnesium Three double-blind crossovers, comparing B6 alone, magnesium alone, and B6 + magnesium with placebo. B6 + magnesium was best. Highly significant (p<.01-p<.001) Decreases in autistic behaviors; Significant (p<.02) decrease in urinary HVA. 8. LeLord et al. (1981) Study 1: 44 children With autistic symptoms. Study 2: 21 children selected from above 44. 600 mg-1,125 mg/day B6 400 mg-500 mg/day magnesium Study 1: open trial to identify responders. Study 2: double-blind placebo crossover comparing responders and non-responders. 15 of 44 improved. In 14 of 15, improvement disappeared 3 weeks after cessation of treatment. Double-blind study confirmed behavior improvement (p<.01). HVA levels levels (n=37) also improved (p<.01). 9. Martineau et al. (1982) 24 autistic children 30 mg/kg/day B6 15 mg/kg/day magnesium Compared electrophysiological effects of magnesium given alone or with B6. In conditioning experiment, B6 + magnesium significantly improved brain response latencies and amplitudes (p<.05). 10. Jonas et al. (1984) 8 autistic adults 1 gram/day B6 380 mg/day magnesium Double-blind crossover Behavior improved significantly; non-significant improvement in HVA excretion. 11. Martineau et al. (1985) 60 autistic children 30 mg/kg/day B6 (up to 1 gram/day) 10 mg-15 mg/kg/day magnesium 4 crossed-sequential double-blind trials, comparing B6 alone, magnesium alone, and B6 + magnesium with placebo. B6 + magnesium was best. Significant improvement in behavior, HVA excretion, and evoked potentials. 12. Martineau et al. (1986) One 4-year-old child 30 mg/kg/day B6 15 mg/kg/day magnesium Long term (8 mo.) study. Clear improvement in behavior, HVA levels, and evoked potentials over the 8 months; deterioration six weeks after cessation resulted I reinstating B6 + magnesium treatment. 13. Martineau et al. (1988) 11 autistic children 30 mg/kg/day B6 10 mg/kg/day magnesium Controlled study; eight weeks of treatment followed by no- treatment period. B6 group showed significant behavioral improvement, normalization of evoked potentials, drop in dopamine levels. Behaviors returned to baseline when treatment was discontinued. 14. Martineau et al. (1989) 6 autistic children 30 mg/kg B6, 10 mg/kg magnesium 8 weeks, 6 autistic children given 1.5 mg/kg fenfluramine 12 weeks. Comparisons made in electrophysiological (AER) effects of the two treatments. B6, but not fenfluramine, "resulted in the appearance of a conditioning phenomenon and the demonstration of auditory-visual and auditory-tactile cross-modal associations during treatment." 15. Rossi et al. (1990) Open trial on 30 autistic patients 40% of patients improved "in the most typical behavioral features of autism." HVA, VMA and 5HIAA levels did not correlate with clinical improvement. 16. Moreno et al. (1992) 60 families with autistic children studied with battery of clinical and biochemical tests "Three out of eight probands who received megadoses of pyridoxine (vitamin B6), subjectively gained in language abilities, affectivity, and response to conductial modification therapy." 17. Menage et al. (1992) 10 autistic children 7 control children 5 boys on megadose B6/magnesium for 8 weeks: "overall improvement of their disorders …. Particularly, improvement was observed for certain autistic symptoms (lack of interest in people, abnormal eye contact, impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication)." Improved T-cell deficits. 18. Findling et al. (1997) (See critique by Rimland, 1998) 10 autistic children 420-1000 mg B6 140-350 mg magnesium Double-blind placebo crossover, 4-week trials, no washout period, no test of compliance. Authors claim no benefit was seen, but were unable to produce data. 19. Hopkins (1999) 13 autistic children 14 mg/kg/day of B6 (maximum 1 gm/day) magnesium=1/2 dosage of B6 Double-blind placebo controlled study. One month washout period between B6-placebo phases. Eight of 13 subjects (61%) showed benefit, using behavioral and electrophysiological data (increased amplitude and decreased latency of P300 responses). 20. Audhya (2002) 184 autistic children on increasing doses of B6 and magnesium, not to exceed 20 mg/kg/day of B6 89 children (48%) improved significantly, 86 (47%) improved marginally, and 9 (5%) showed worse behavior. (Main thrust of research was to study laboratory indices of metabolic status of the children.) 21. Kuriyama (2002) 16 "PDD" children, ages 6-16, 200 mg/day B6 (far below usual megadose range, and no magnesium was used) 4-week randomized double blind placebo-controlled study, subjects on B6 showed 11.2 IQ point increase compared to 6 points for placebo group (statistically significant) 22. Rimland & Edelson (2005) 5780 autistic children and adults. B6 and magnesium dosages decided by parents and physicians Parents rated 85 biomedical interventions as to safety and efficacy. B6 and magnesium were rated "Helpful" in 47%, "No effect" in 49%, and "Made worse" in 4%.